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Footnotes to The social classification of peasants in Vietnam

 

1Dr. Serge Thion, a scholar in sociology and anthropology from the Sorbonne, taught in Saigon and Phnom Penh before joining the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Paris) in 1971. He is the author of Le Pouvoir Pale (Le Seuil, 1969) and co-author of Des Courtisans aux Partisans (Gallimard, 1971), in addition to many articles.


2 Truong Chinh&Vo Nguyen Giap, The Peasant Question (1937-38) ed., transl. and intr. by Christine Pelzer White, Cornell University Press, 1974, p.28.


3 See Pierre Brocheux, L'Economie et la Société dans l'Ouest cochinchinois pendant la période coloniale, unpubl. thesis, Paris, 1969. Extract in Tradition et Révolution au Vietnam ed. by J. Chesnaux, G. Boudarel&D. Hemery, Paris, Ed. Anthropos, 1971, p.147-63.


4 "In the XVth Century... (there was) no more great appanages; even if the king distributed land to some high ranking dignitaries, the area was limited and the privilege was no longer hereditary. The buying of land by anyone who could afford it was legalized, whereas in the court and in the administration, the highest functions were open to all through examinations." Nguyen Nghe, "Un grand lettre d'autrefois: Nguyen Trai", La Pensée, 110, Aug. 1963, p.131.


5 See Camille Briffaut, La Cite Annamite, 3 volumes, Paris 1909-1912, and Nguyen Huu Khang, La Commune annamite, Paris, Sirey, 1946.


6 Brève histoisre du Parti des Travailleurs duVietnam, Hanoi, 1970.


7 "Le programme d'action du Parti communiste indochinois", Partisans, Paris, 48, JuneAugust 1969, p.58.


8 Idem, p.59.


9 Truong Chinh., op. cit., p.16-7.


10 Idem, p.19.


11 Friederich Engels, "Die Bauernfrage in Frankreich und Deutschland", Werke, Berlin, Dietz, vol. XXII, p.488.


12 Idem, p. 503.


13 Idem, p. 504.


14 Karl Marx, "Entwurfe einer Antwort den Brief von V.I. Sassulitsch," Werke, Berlin, Dietz, vol. XIX, p.384-406.


15 Pierre Sorlin, "Lénine et le problème paysan en 1917", Annales, Paris, March-April 1964, p.250-80.


16 V. Yakovtsevskii, quoted by Basile Kerblay in his introduction to Alexander V. Chayanov, The Theory of Peasant Economy, Irwin, Illinois, 1966, p. LXXIII.


17 Moshé Lewin, La Paysannerie et le pouvoir soviétique, 1928-1930, Paris, La Haye, Mouton, repr. 1976, 480p.


18 See for instance, The Basic Program of the Chinese Agrarian Law, (13.9.47), published by Frank C. Lee, "Land Redistribution in Communist China," Foreign Affairs, 2, 1, March l948, p. 30-2.


19 William Hinton, Fanshen, l966. See chapter 48 for one example.


20 For instance, see Mao Tse-Tung's speech (11.2.48) on the rectification of the leftist deviations in the propaganda for land reform. Oeuvres choisies, Pekin, IV, (1969), p.203-5.


21 Bernard B. Fall, The Viet-Minh Regime, New York, Institute of Pacific Relations, 2nd. ed. ,1956, p.172-8.


22 The literature on this subject is vast. For a balanced North Vietnamese view, see Nguyen Khac Vien, Expériences vietnamiennes, Paris, Ed. sociales, 1970, p.73-97.


23 Said the Governeur Pagès in the Colonial Council: "I do not know if you understand that the land appropriation system in Cochinchina will not last for ever. It may be in three years, maybe five years, ten years, thirty years, fifty years, but events will break out established positions," in La Lutte, Saigon, 26.10.34; quoted by Daniel Hemery, Révolutionnaires vietnamiens et pouvoir colonial en Indochine, Paris, Maspero, 1976, p.92.


24 John D. Montgomery, "Land Reform as a Means to Political Development in Viet Nam", Orbis, 12, 1, Spring 1968, p.12.


25 Idem, p. 20


26 See "The Promise of Agricultural Reform in Japan", Foreign Affairs, Jan. 1948. (with W. M. Gilmartin); "Agrarian Reform in the Republic of Vietnam," in W. Fischel ed., Problems of Freedom, New York, 1961; "Agrarian Reform in Asia", Foreign Affairs, April 1964.


27 See for instance the special issue of Asian Survey (Berkeley) 10, 8, Aug. 1970, on "Vietnam: Politics, Land Reform and Development in the Countryside. "


28 According to a North Vietnamese writer, during the war (1947-54), 660,000 ha. have been redistributed. Land rent has been reduced to 10 or 16 percent of the crop, in many places. The Diem policy was mainly considered as an attempt to go backward. Vu Can, "Les Luttes populaires contre le regime US-Diem", Etudes vietnamiennes, Hanoi, 18-19, 1968, p.84.


29 John L. Sorenson, "The Social Bases of Instability in Rural Southeast Asia", Asian Survey, 9, 7, July 1969, p.540.


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